Garlic is a member of the lily family, originally from Central Asia. Although it came from the heart of Asia, it was cultivated by the Chinese, Jews, Egyptians, and other nations. Many people used to associate garlic with eternal life in ancient times. But it was known to offer many health-beneficial ingredients. Garlic is thought to have been first cultivated by the Egyptians and has played an important role in their culture. He was regarded as a sacred plant, as he was often found in the tombs of Pharaohs. Even the ancient Greeks were not immune to its gross charm. Here, too, it is primarily valued as a means of improving the strength and endurance of the organism, so it was used by soldiers and competitors at the Olympic Games, perhaps as the first means of improving results. Hippocrates included him in his therapy for the treatment of respiratory organs, cleansing the body, treatment of infections and inflammation, Aristotle recommends it as a tonic…
Each garlic bulb or bulb consists of several small cherries that are held together by an outer shell. Due to its intense aroma and taste, garlic is not used as a vegetable in the narrow sense, but above all as an addition to many dishes. It has a high nutritional value in its composition. Garlic seeds contain water, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fibers, and minerals: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sulfur. The main vitamins present in garlic are: carotene, vitamins E, B1, B2, B3, and vitamin C. Its health value is given by the essential oil containing sulfur (taste and smell) and the herbal antibiotic.
With the first cold autumn days, colds, viruses, and flu become actual. Therefore, garlic becomes very topical at the time because it has antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties. Garlic has been used in folk medicine for centuries. It also helps with cardiovascular diseases, in the prevention of high pressure, helps normalize the intestinal flora, has anti-cancer properties.
Planting and growing garlic in the garden is a healthier and less expensive option than shopping at a supermarket. Garlic is very easy to grow because it thrives well outside and inside with just a little sun and attention. If you are considering starting a garlic grower know that the decision will not be wrong, with a minimal investment you will have almost unlimited supplies.
All you need to grow garlic on your own is a few dicks of organic garlic. It is best to buy garlic at a market, from a verified person, or at a supermarket, in the organic food department. If you buy plain garlic at the store, it probably won’t sprout either, as it is mostly sprayed with germs that prevent germination.
Garlic planted in the fall or early spring.
Autumn — (winter), they plant in autumn, winter and in the next year immediately in the spring begin to develop vegetative mass and bulb, ripen in early summer. They have a shorter standstill period and as such, in ambient conditions, their raw material cannot be stored until spring. The leaves and false stems are broader and larger, and the head itself is larger, with a smaller number of larger ones. As more seed is required and a smaller yield in the heads is obtained. The reason why more seeds are needed is that larger cherries are used because some nutrients are lost due to winter and dormancy at low temperatures. As the recommended deadline for fall planting is the first half of October. Harvesting of garlic planted in the autumn period takes place at the beginning of July and can be successfully stored for up to 6 months if properly stored.
Spring — they plant in the spring and mature in mid-summer. In ambient In ambient conditions, they can be well-preserved until spring, as they have a longer standstill. These types are more sensitive to low temperatures and are therefore planted in the spring. The leaves and false stems are thinner and narrower, and the heads smaller with more blues. Unlike in the fall, spring planting requires less seed by weight, yielding on average more genera. This extraction arch arrives at the end of July and can be stored for up to 10 months thereafter when stored properly. The optimum deadline for planting garlic in spring is the mid-March period. The depth of planting is such that the trees should be 4 cm deep, which is slightly shallower than when planted in the fall.
Spring garlic differs from autumn on the size of the bulbs and the number of stumps in them. The spring has a smaller head and more small combs, while the autumn has a larger comb and a smaller number of larger combs. What they both have in common is that they should not be produced on acidic soil, have strong nutritional requirements, and have the same agrotechnical.
Alternative — They are closer to spring types, but can be planted in the fall because they are more resistant to low temperatures than spring ones. By planting in the fall, their vegetation is prolonged, causing a slightly larger head and thus a higher yield than spring planting.
The garlic head is divided into a dozen cherries, which are densely attached and together form a circular shape. Each garlic is wrapped in a protective shell, and they are all wrapped together and connected by a common protective shell. The planting of garlic can be done by hand or by machine, with larger ones being used. Before starting planting, the crops must be disinfected. The most important thing in this job is to have the hole or the stump properly positioned with the heel down and the top facing the surface. The position may also be slightly angled, but it is undesirable to plant the plant upside down, which is often the case with machine planting.
Before planting, the plants are separated from the head, and the larger ones are used for planting. Immediately before planting for reproduction healthy and undamaged large bulbs of regular shape are selected for reproduction. If possible, it is best to use external members. Until planting, the bulbs are stored in a ventilated warehouse at the temperature required for planting. Although garlic cloves of about 1 gram in weight can give a plant, it is better to plant larger cloves of 4-6 grams, since larger cloves get larger heads. Planting is done manually, mechanically, with planers on flat ground or previously prepared flower beds. It is planted in rows 20 to 30 cm apart, and the plant spacing in the row depends on the size of the planting stems. When planting manually, the trees are planted upright so that the steam begins to reach a depth of 4-5 cm, and in cooler areas during autumn planting a little deeper.
In continental areas, it is planted in mid-October in the fall. If planted in spring, early planting is preferable as soon as the weather permits. There are recommendations for early fall planting, in mid-September, for more leaves to develop during the growing season and for the bulb to develop in mid-summer. Garlic does not tolerate monoculture, so it should not be grown after plants from the same family. On the same surface, production can be repeated every four to five years and is the safest and most environmentally friendly measure of protection. The most suitable preconditions are cabbage, tomatoes, and peppers, as they leave loose and uncovered soil.
Experts recommend the use of organic nutrients, but for autumn under the previous crop. For spring, it is advisable to bring in the organic nutrients in the fall during basic processing, when mineral nutrients can also be introduced. Garlic care is to protect plants from weeds, pests, nutrition, and irrigation. Mechanical care is difficult to do due to denser planting, so good and good basic treatment is recommended. Irrigation is desirable and the irrigation rate is up to a maximum of 35 mm on lighter soils. The average is 20-30 mm per irrigation. In the post-planting phase, for ten days, during the period of intensive leaf growth and when bulbs are formed, garlic has a strong water requirement.
The optimum temperature for cultivation is 18-22 C, and during the ripening, period it must be slightly higher (about 26 C). During ripening, it would be good if the humidity was 60-65%.
During vegetation, crop care consists of weed control, irrigation, nutrition and protection against plant diseases and pests. Spring fertilization with inter-row post-emergence treatment will allow for a better water-air regime and compensate for the washed nitrogen during winter. In the case of prolonged dry periods, garlic irrigation can ensure smooth growth, but 3 weeks before the planned harvest, irrigation should cease.
At least 5 kg / m square of compost and liquid organic fertilizers are added to the growth. It is stored in the 3-4 leaf stage as well as at the time of bulb formation with natural mineral fertilizers every 7-10 days. Digging is important because it keeps the topsoil loose and prevents the loss of water from its deeper layers. Thus, the bulb develops optimally. On compacted lands, they remain smaller and yield smaller. After two to three plowing, when the plants are well-developed, the soil is well soaked with water and mulch is placed.
Harvesting and yields
Garlic is ripe for extraction when the false stem softens and the above-ground part begins to lay. At that time, most of the sugar in the onion reserve tissue was controlled by a refractometer. It is recommended to remove garlic when about a third of the leaves are green, and if harvested mechanically, even earlier. For garlic, autumn planting is usually in late July, and in spring planting during August. The extraction is done in dry and nice weather, when the soil is moderately dried, using special trawlers. After removing the garlic, it is necessary to bring it from the field to a sun-protected area and dry it in a thin layer. It is then cleared of leaves and root residue as well as calibrated to standards. Impacts should be avoided in these operations. In mechanized extraction, the leaves are first to cut and then harvested with custom extractors. This method is used primarily to extract garlic for processing.
Garlic can be stored throughout the year in controlled conditions warehouses at 1-2 C, at a relative humidity of 70-75%, with constant ventilation. Garlic yield depends on the type, planting date, planting material and planting method. Garlic harvesting can start when only a third of the leaves are green, then the leaves relax and begin to lay on the ground. If the extraction is done by machine, then it must be done before half of the leaves turn yellow, and for some varieties, the harvesting is done immediately after the heads are formed.
Manual extraction can hardly succeed only by simply pulling the onion out of the ground due to leaf blasting. For this reason, a hoe is used to scatter the soil near the head, which makes it easier to remove the heads from the ground. After extraction, it is necessary to clean them from the ground, allow them to dry and then sort them according to the sizes of the heads. When grown in households for their use and market take-out, onions are knitted into so-called wreaths and then hung in place with a promo to dry.
If the harvesting is done on a larger area, then the onion is left machined on the plot to dry. After a while, the removal of the leaf mass, which is cut off a few inches from the head and the root removal, is started. The onions so prepared are packaged in netted jacks so that the drying process can continue in storage.
When plant cultivation is approached with so much dedication and love, the benefit is multiple, and not just material. In addition to learning a lot, by cultivating plants, man becomes spiritually richer, calmer, more complete and aware of the value of nature.
. „Povrtarstvo“ /“Vegetable“/, authors: Branka Lazić, Mihal Đurovka, Vladan Marković, arko Ilin
. „Organsko povrtarstvo„ /”Organic vegetable production”/, authors: Branka Lazić
. „Opšte povrtarstvo„ /General vegetable growing/, authors: Mirjana D. Đorđević, Branka Lazić
. Agroplus www.agroplus.rs
. Stetoskop www.stetoskop.info